The word gold derives from the Old English Anglo-Saxon word 'geolo' meaning yellow. The chemical symbol for gold is Au, from the Latin aurum, which means 'shining dawn' Gold bars were made as early as 4000 BC.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.
Melting point: 1,064 °C
Atomic number: 79
Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Boiling point: 2,970 °C
Atomic mass: 196.96657 ± 0.000004 u
75% of all gold ever produced has been extracted since 1910. It has been estimated that all the gold in the world that has ever been refined would form a single cube 20 m (66 ft) a side.
The price of gold is fixed twice a day at 10.30 am and 3.00 pm at the premises of N M Rothschild by the five main Bullion Houses – Deutsche Bank, HSBC, NM Rothschild, Scotia Mocatta and Societe Generale. The first gold fix was on 12th September, 1919 and this tradition has continued in order to provide a publicly quoted price as a benchmark to be used by producers and consumers.
Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of gold medals, golden trophies and other decorations. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a gold medal. Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Other award statues and prizes are depicted in gold or are gold plated (such as the Academy Awards, the Golden Globe Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Palme d'Or, and the British Academy Film Awards).
Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. Our most valued or most successful latter years are sometimes considered "golden years". The height of a civilization is referred to as a "golden age".
The consumption of gold produced in the world is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry.
KDM MarkGold Jewelry from some places is / was marked with a KDM stamp which simply means that the Jewelry was soldered with Cadmium. Cadmium also called ‘Kadium’ was traditionally used in soldering of gold jewelry for its good properties of liquidity and melting at lower temperatures. Smoke emanating from cadmium soldering caused health hazards to artisans. In many countries, the KDM seal was made compulsory as a warning to those using it. Subsequently, KDM-marked jewellery was banned in many countries. shortly after the introduction of cadmium, it was also banned by BIS as it was found to cause health issues for artisans working with it. After the ban, cadmium was replaced by advanced solders with Zinc and other metals.KDM does not stand for quality. Using any type of rgold solder either KDM (Cadmium) or other gold solder to make the jewelry does not guarantee the purity of gold, as the purity is a representation of the percentage of gold in any metal. KDM mark is a “statutory warning” against use of jewellery made with cadmium soldering.
On 11th April 2000, the BIS launched its hallmarking scheme. The basic objectives of the scheme were Consumer Protection, to enhance exports, to improve the quality and purity of gold jewellery produced and to monitor any loss to the economy due to the improper karatage. A Hallmark indicates that the gold content in the jewellery has been evaluated and that the gold adheres to international standards of purity. So you can take the gold quality as claimed by the jeweller to be genuine. A Hallmark – or Standard Mark – for gold jewellery is awarded by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Hallmark is for buyer’s peace of mind that he bought genuine gold. For more information on BIS Hallmark visit their website.